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Copyright © 2012 Pendown Society

ESSAYS

An Essay: Corruption in India :

 
Essay: Corruption in India: 


Introduction 


â € œPower tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts € absolutely.â 

It is not easy to define corruption. But in a narrow sense, corruption is primarily concerned with â € ~ € ™ bribery and takes several forms. Corruption is a global phenomenon and is omnipresent. Corruption has risen steadily and is now rampant in our society. 

National Stage 

Corruption in India is a consequence of the nexus between bureaucracy, politics and criminals. India is no longer considered a soft state. Now it has become a state of mind where everything can be had for a test. Today, the number of ministers with an honest image can be counted on the fingers. At one time, bribe was paid to do things wrong, but now they pay bribes to get things done well at the right time. 

Effects of corruption 

india administration is tainted with scandals. India is among 55 of the 106 countries where corruption is rampant, according to the Index of Perceived Corruption Report 2004, published by Transparency International India. Corruption in India leads to promotion not prison. It is very difficult to catch big sharks â € ~ € ™. Corruption in India has no wings wheels. As a nation grows, so do the corrupt to invent new methods of cheating the government and the public. 

The causes of corruption 


The causes of corruption are many and complex. The following are some of the causes of corruption. 

 • Appearance of the political elite who believe in programs to interest rather than nation-oriented policies. 

 • artificial shortages created by the people with malevolent intent destroys the fabric of the economy. 

 • Corruption is caused as well as the increase due to the change in value system and ethical qualities of men who administer. The old ideals of morality, service and honesty are considered a achronistic. 

 • The tolerance of people towards corruption, the complete lack of intense public outcry against corruption and the absence of strong public forum to oppose corruption allow corruption to reign over people. 

 • The size of most of the population, coupled with widespread illiteracy and poor economic infrastructure tip of the endemic corruption in public life. 

 • In a highly inflationary economy, low salaries of government officials are forced to resort to the path of corruption. IIM graduates with no experience in a very attractive salary than what government secretaries draw. 

 • complex laws and procedures alienate common people to ask any government assistance. 

 • The timing of elections is a time when corruption is at its peak. Great political fund employer to comply with the high cost of the election and ultimately seek personal favor. Bribery to politicians buys influence, and bribery of politicians buying votes. To be elected, politicians bribe poor illiterate people, who are slogging for two times meals € ™. 


Measures to combat corruption 

Is it possible to contain corruption in our society? Corruption is a cancer, that all Indians should strive to cure. Many new leaders when in power declare their determination to eradicate corruption but soon become corrupt and begin to accumulate huge wealth. 

There are many myths about corruption, which must be exploited, if we really want to fight. Some of these myths are: Corruption is a way of life and nothing can be done. Only people from underdeveloped or developing countries are prone to corruption. You have to avoid all these crude fallacies while planning measures to combat corruption. 

 • Laws should be foolproof so that no discretion to politicians and bureaucrats. The role of the politician should be minimized. The implementation of the policies developed should be left to the independent commission or authority in every area of public interest. Decision of the commission or authority should be challenged only in court. 

 • The cooperation of the people must be obtained to successfully contain corruption. People should have the right to recall elected officials if they see that they become indifferent to the electorate. 

 • The financing of elections is at the center of political corruption. Electoral reforms are crucial in this regard. Several reforms such as state funding of election expenses of candidates, strict compliance with legal requirements such as elections in part as political parties have their accounts audited regularly and filing tax income, denying persons with criminal records the opportunity to participate in elections should be presented 

 • Responsiveness, accountability and transparency are a must for a clean system. Bureaucracy, the backbone of good governance, should be more citizen friendly, responsible, ethical and transparent. 

• Once again the courts should be open to the prompt and inexpensive justice so that cases donâ € ™ t stay in the courts for years and justice is delivered on time. 

 • The local bodies independent of government, as Lokpals, Lokadalats, CVC and the vigilance committees should be formed to provide speedy justice with low expenses. 

 • A new fundamental right to know. Right to Information should be made, which entitles citizens to seek the information they want. Barring some confidential information that relates to national and international security, another type of information should be available to the general public when necessary. strict measures against corrupt officials will undoubtedly have a deterrent effect. 


Conclusion 

Corruption is an intractable problem. It's like diabetes, can only be controlled but not completely eliminated. It may not be possible to completely eradicate corruption at all levels, but may contain within tolerable limits. Honest and dedicated persons in public life, control over electoral expenses could be the most important recipe for fighting corruption. Corruption has a corrosive effect on our economy. Worsens our image in the international market and leads to lost opportunities abroad. Corruption is a global problem that all countries of the world are facing, solutions, however, can only be done at home. We tolerated corruption for so long. The time has come to eradicate its roots.


SUBMITTED BY-Swati Krishna

An Essay: Child Labour in India
:

Introduction


Child Labour, consisting of children below 14 years of age, is defined by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) as “the type of work performed by children that deprives them of their childhood and their dignity, which hampers their access to education and acquisition of skills and which is performed under conditions harmful to their health and their developmentâ€. Children are the greatest gift to humanity and the same gift is being misused for personal gains as child labour. They constitute 36% of India’s population but a large majority of children in the age group of 5-14 years continue to remain in distress and turmoil. One in every five children below the age of 14 is a labourer. The flower (Child) withers before it blossoms.

Magnitude of the problem


Child labour is more a rural phenomenon than an urban phenomenon. Due to acute poverty poor families residing in rural areas send their children to urban areas for bread and butter. In urban areas, to survive in a cutthroat competition, manufacturers have lowered the real wages for adult workers in order to employ child workers on low wages. The problem is very much vast in its dimension. Children are forced to work in the most hazardous, unhygienic conditions, where they are vulnerable to many severe health problems.

Causes of Child Labour

In a country like India where over 40 percent of the population is living in conditions of extreme poverty, child labour is a complex issue. Following are some of the causes of child labour.

First Extreme poverty is the chief cause of child labour. The children either supplement their parents’ income or are the only wage earners in the family.

Second Child labour is deliberately created by vested interest to get cheap labour.

Third Low level of parental education is also an important factor in determining the incidence of child labour.

Fourth A majority of parents prefer to send their children to work rather than to school at the school-going age, primarily on account of their need for a supplementary income.

Measures to combat Child Labour

Child labour is a universal problem and as a citizen of India we must strive to take stern actions against child labour.

Role of NGOs: NGOs have an important role to play in the elimination of child labour. Government does not have the infrastructure to reach every section of the society and particularly the millions who work and live in remote areas. NGOs can act as a bridge between hard-to-reach areas and the government.

Role of Media: The role of media in elimination of child labour is one of the most important components of the process of total human development. The media should expose defaulting firms or business houses that clandestinely employ children and violate laws relating to child labour.

The government should give certain monetary or if need be non-monetary incentives to the families that live Below Poverty Line (BPL) to avoid child labour so that their children can be sent to school.

Effective state intervention to eliminate inequities, including class and caste barriers to employment and other opportunities in areas such as health and education, will put an end to child labour.

Conclusion


Child labour is an international evil. It requires cumulative efforts to wipe it out. Toiling long hours for a pittance, these little breadwinners accept exploitation as a way of life. The government on this front has also taken a few steps. The International Labour Organization (ILO) launched the International Programme for Elimination of Child Labours in 1991 and India was the first to join the same in 1992. But still the problem persists due to poor implementation of the plans and programmes. The need of the hour is to expand the machinery for enforcing the various laws on child labour. There is a plethora of laws but nothing can eradicate child labour unless there is awareness among parents and children, which will go a long way in saving the future of millions of working children in India. Lastly instead of blaming the "supply side", we must focus on the "demand side'.
 

 
Submitted by-Prem Anand

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